Irritant Contact Dermatitis

Definition
is an eczematous reaction in the skin of external origin. In contrast to allergic contact dermatitis, no eliciting allergens can be identified.
This is triggered by exposure to a chemical that is poisonous (toxic) or irritating to the skin. It is not an allergic reaction.

In children, the most common form of irritant contact dermatitis is “diaper rash.” This is a skin reaction in the diaper area.

Types
is a form of contact dermatitis that can be divided into forms caused by chemical irritants (CICD) and those caused by physical irritants (PICD).

Causes
Chemical Irritants :

  • detergents, surfactants, extremes of pH, organic solvents, strong alkalies as found in drain cleaners and soap with lye residues
  • Diaper Rash is caused by prolonged contact with the natural chemicals found in urine and stool.

Physical Irritants :

  • low humidity from air conditioning was found to be the most common cause of PICD
  • the simplest form of PICD results from prolonged rubbing, paper friction, fiberglass, and scratchy clothing.

Patient Education and Health Maintenance
You can prevent contact dermatitis by avoiding exposure to irritating chemicals, plants, jewelry and other substances that trigger irritant contact dermatitis.
You can prevent diaper dermatitis:
* Change baby diapers frequently
* Clean the soiled area with warm water and a soft cloth
* Avoid using store-bought wipes and cleansers on your child’s skin
* Apply a protective coat of zinc oxide ointment

Dermatitis 1 Fig. 1 The cheeks are a frequent site of irritant contact dermatitis from constant wetting and drying

Dermatitis 2Fig. 2  Irritant contact dermatitis from excessive hand washing

 

Created by : dr. Jukiarta