Diabetes is a problem with your body that causes blood glucose
(sugar) levels to rise higher than normal.
Normally, your body breaks down the sugars and carbohydrates you eat into a special sugar called glucose. Glucose fuels the cells in your body. But the cells need insulin, a hormone, in your bloodstream in order to take in the glucose and use it for energy. With diabetes mellitus, either your body doesn’t make enough insulin, it can’t use the insulin it does produce, or a combination of both.
Since the cells can’t take in the glucose, it builds up in your blood. High levels of blood glucose-
can damage the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, heart, eyes, or nervous system. That’s why diabetes
à especially if left untreated à can eventually cause heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and nerve damage to nerves in the feet.
Diabetes mellitus (or diabetes) is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body’s ability to use the energy found in food.
There are three major types of diabetes:
1.type 1 diabetes à insulin-dependent diabetes
2.type 2 diabetes à non-insulin-dependent diabetes
If you have type 2 diabetes your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance.
At first, your pancreas makes extra insulin to make up for it. But, over time it isn’t able to keep up and
can’t make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose at normal levels.
If you have two or more of these symptoms, you should see your doctor.
Without treatment, diabetes can become life-threatening.
Exams and Tests
- Your doctor may suspect that you have diabetes if your blood sugar level is higher than
200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL).
To confirm the diagnosis, one or more of the following tests must be done.
- Oral glucose tolerance test: Diabetes is diagnosed if the glucose level is higher than
200 mg/dL 2 hours after drinking a special sugar drink
- Fasting blood glucose level: Diabetes is diagnosed if it is higher than 126 mg/dL two different times.
- Hemoglobin A1c (A1C) test: Diabetes is diagnosed if the test result is 6.5% or higher.
If you have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, you need to work closely with your doctor.
See your doctor as often as instructed. This may be every 3 months.
How to Control and Manage ??
- Include foods rich in fiber and healthy carbohydrates in your diet. Eating fruits, vegetables,
and whole grains will help keep your blood glucose levels steady.
- Eat at regular intervals
- Control your weight and keep your heart healthy. That means keeping refined carbohydrates, sweets,
and animal fats to a minimum.
- Get about half an hour of aerobic activity daily to help keep your heart healthy. Exercise helps to control blood glucose, too.
Talk to your doctor about your personal nutrition,calorie goals and medicine. Together, you can come up with a diet plan that tastes great and suits your lifestyle needs.
- Diabetes is a lifelong disease and there is no cure.
- Some people with type 2 diabetes no longer need medicine if they lose weight and become more active.
When they reach their ideal weight, their body’s own insulin and a healthy diet can control their blood sugar level.
- You can help prevent type 2 diabetes by staying at a healthy body weight.
You can get to a healthy weight by eating healthy foods, controlling your portion sizes, and leading an active lifestyle.
Some medicines can also delay or prevent type 2 diabetes in people at risk of developing the disease.